Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

In today's world, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is a topic that generates great interest and debate, whether due to its relevance in today's society, its impact on people's daily lives or its influence on different aspects of culture and politics. In this article, we will thoroughly explore the topic of Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, analyzing its different facets and implications to provide a broad and complete overview of the topic. Through various perspectives and opinions, we will seek to shed light on Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and understand its importance in the current context.

An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, other than the chief justice of the United States. The number of associate justices is eight, as set by the Judiciary Act of 1869.

Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution of the United States grants plenary power to the president to nominate, and with the advice and consent (confirmation) of the Senate, appoint justices to the Supreme Court. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution effectively grants life tenure to associate justices, and all other federal judges, which ends only when a justice dies, retires, resigns, or is impeached and convicted.

Each Supreme Court justice has a single vote in deciding the cases argued before it, and the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any other justice; however, the chief justice leads the discussion of the case among the justices. Furthermore, the chief justice—when in the majority—decides who writes the court's opinion; otherwise, the senior justice in the majority assigns the writing of a decision. The chief justice also has certain administrative responsibilities that the other justices do not and is paid slightly more ($298,500 per year as of 2023, compared to $285,400 per year for an associate justice).

Associate justices have seniority in order of the date their respective commissions bear, although the chief justice is always considered to be the most senior justice. If two justices are commissioned on the same day, the elder is designated the senior justice of the two. Currently, the senior associate justice is Clarence Thomas. By tradition, when the justices are in conference deliberating the outcome of cases before the Supreme Court, the justices state their views in order of seniority. The senior associate justice is also tasked with carrying out the chief justice's duties when he is unable to, or if that office is vacant.

Current associate justices

There are currently eight associate justices on the Supreme Court. The justices, ordered by seniority, are:

Retired associate justices

An associate justice who leaves the Supreme Court after attaining the age and meeting the service requirements prescribed by federal statute (28 U.S.C. § 371) may retire rather than resign. After retirement, they keep their title, and by custom may also keep a set of chambers in the Supreme Court building, and employ law clerks. The names of retired associate justices continue to appear alongside those of the active justices in the bound volumes of Supreme Court decisions. Federal statute (28 U.S.C. § 294) provides that retired Supreme Court justices may serve—if designated and assigned by the chief justice—on panels of the U.S. courts of appeals, or on the U.S. district courts. Retired justices are not, however, authorized to take part in the consideration or decision of any cases before the Supreme Court (unlike other retired federal judges who may be permitted to do so in their former courts); neither are they known or designated as a "senior judge". When, after his retirement, William O. Douglas attempted to take a more active role than was customary, maintaining that it was his prerogative to do so because of his senior status, he was rebuffed by Chief Justice Warren Burger and admonished by the whole Court.

There are currently three living retired associate justices: David Souter, retired June 29, 2009; Anthony Kennedy, retired July 31, 2018; and Stephen Breyer, retired June 30, 2022. Souter has served on panels of the First Circuit Courts of Appeals following his retirement; Kennedy and Breyer have not performed any judicial duties since retiring.

List of associate justices

Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, the following 104 persons have served as an associate justice:

Associate justice Seat Replacing Date confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure Appointed by Prior position
1 John Rutledge 1st (new seat) September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 15, 1790

March 4, 1791
(Resigned)
George Washington 31st
governor of South Carolina
(1779–1782)
2 William Cushing 2nd (new seat) September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 2, 1790

September 13, 1810
(Died)
Chief Justice of the
Massachusetts Superior Court
(1777–1789)
3 James Wilson 3rd (new seat) September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
October 5, 1789

August 21, 1798
(Died)
Delegate to the
Constitutional Convention
(1787)
4 John Blair 4th (new seat) September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 2, 1790

October 25, 1795
(Resigned)
Member of the
Virginia House of Burgesses
(1766–1770)
5 James Iredell 5th (new seat) February 10, 1790
(Acclamation)
May 12, 1790

October 20, 1799
(Died)
2nd
attorney general of North Carolina
(1779–1782)
6 Thomas Johnson 1st J. Rutledge November 7, 1791
(Acclamation)
September 19, 1791

January 16, 1793
(Resigned)
1st
governor of Maryland
(1777–1779)
7 William Paterson T. Johnson March 4, 1793
(Acclamation)
March 11, 1793

September 8, 1806
(Died)
2nd
governor of New Jersey
(1790–1793)
8 Samuel Chase 4th Blair January 27, 1796
(Acclamation)
February 4, 1796

June 19, 1811
(Died)
Chief Justice of the
Maryland General Court
(1791–1796)
9 Bushrod Washington 3rd Wilson December 20, 1798
(Acclamation)
November 9, 1798

November 26, 1829
(Died)
John Adams Delegate to the
Virginia Ratifying Convention
(1788)
10 Alfred Moore 5th Iredell December 9, 1799
(Acclamation)
April 21, 1800

January 26, 1804
(Resigned)
3rd
attorney general of North Carolina
(1782–1791)
11 William Johnson 5th Moore March 24, 1804
(Acclamation)
May 7, 1804

August 4, 1834
(Died)
Thomas Jefferson Speaker of the
South Carolina House of Representatives
(1798–1800)
12 Henry Brockholst Livingston 1st Paterson December 17, 1806
(Acclamation)
January 20, 1807

March 18, 1823
(Died)
Justice of the
New York Supreme Court
(1802–1807)
13 Thomas Todd 6th (new seat) March 2, 1807
(Acclamation)
March 4, 1807

February 7, 1826
(Died)
Chief Justice of the
Kentucky Court of Appeals
(1806–1807)
14 Gabriel Duvall 4th Chase November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
November 23, 1811

January 12, 1835
(Resigned)
James Madison U.S. representative for
Maryland's 2nd district
(1794–1796)
15 Joseph Story 2nd Cushing November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
February 3, 1812

September 10, 1845
(Died)
U.S. representative for
Massachusetts's 2nd district
(1808–1809)
16 Smith Thompson 1st Livingston December 9, 1823
(Acclamation)
September 1, 1823

December 18, 1843
(Died)
James Monroe 6th
United States secretary of the Navy
(1819–1823)
17 Robert Trimble 6th Todd May 9, 1826
(25–5)
June 16, 1826

August 25, 1828
(Died)
John Quincy Adams Judge of the
United States District Court
for the District of Kentucky

(1817–1826)
18 John McLean Trimble March 7, 1829
(Acclamation)
March 12, 1829

April 4, 1861
(Died)
Andrew Jackson 6th
United States postmaster general
(1823–1829)
19 Henry Baldwin 3rd Washington January 6, 1830
(41–2)
January 18, 1830

April 21, 1844
(Died)
U.S. representative for
Pennsylvania's 14th district
(1817–1822)
20 James Moore Wayne 5th W. Johnson January 9, 1835
(Acclamation)
January 14, 1835

July 5, 1867
(Died) (Seat abolished)
U.S. representative for
Georgia's at-large district
(1829–1835)
21 Philip P. Barbour 4th Duvall March 15, 1836
(30–11)
May 12, 1836

February 25, 1841
(Died)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Virginia

(1830–1836)
22 John Catron 7th (new seat) March 8, 1837
(28–15)
May 1, 1837

May 30, 1865
(Died) (Seat abolished)
Judge of the
Tennessee Supreme Court
of Errors and Appeals

(1824–1834)
23 John McKinley 8th (new seat) September 25, 1837
(Acclamation)
January 9, 1838

July 19, 1852
(Died)
Martin Van Buren United States senator
from Alabama
(1826–1831, 1837)
24 Peter Vivian Daniel 4th Barbour March 2, 1841
(25–5)
January 10, 1842

May 31, 1860
(Died)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Virginia

(1836–1841)
25 Samuel Nelson 1st Thompson February 14, 1845
(Acclamation)
February 27, 1845

November 28, 1872
(Retired)
John Tyler Chief Justice of the New York Supreme Court
(1831–1845)
26 Levi Woodbury 2nd Story January 31, 1846
(Acclamation)
September 23, 1845

September 4, 1851
(Died)
James K. Polk 13th
United States secretary of the treasury
(1834–1841)
27 Robert Cooper Grier 3rd Baldwin August 4, 1846
(Acclamation)
August 10, 1846

January 31, 1870
(Retired)
Judge for the
Pennsylvania state District Court
for Allegheny County
(1833–1846)
28 Benjamin Robbins Curtis 2nd Woodbury December 20, 1851
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1851

September 30, 1857
(Resigned)
Millard Fillmore Massachusetts state representative
29 John Archibald Campbell 8th McKinley March 22, 1853
(Acclamation)
April 11, 1853

April 30, 1861
(Resigned)
Franklin Pierce Alabama state representative
30 Nathan Clifford 2nd Curtis January 12, 1858
(26–23)
January 21, 1858

July 25, 1881
(Died)
James Buchanan 19th
United States attorney general
(1846–1848)
31 Noah Haynes Swayne 6th McLean January 24, 1862
(38–1)
January 27, 1862

January 24, 1881
(Retired)
Abraham Lincoln U.S. attorney for the
District of Ohio
(1830–1834)
32 Samuel Freeman Miller 4th Daniel July 16, 1862
(Acclamation)
July 21, 1862

October 13, 1890
(Died)
Lawyer,
Private practice
33 David Davis 8th Campbell December 8, 1862
(Acclamation)
December 10, 1862

March 3, 1877
(Resigned)
Judge of the
Illinois 3rd Circuit Court
(1848–1862)
34 Stephen Johnson Field 9th (new seat) March 10, 1863
(Acclamation)
May 20, 1863

December 1, 1897
(Retired)
5th
chief justice of California
(1859–1863)
35 William Strong 3rd Grier February 18, 1870
(Acclamation)
March 14, 1870

December 14, 1880
(Retired)
Ulysses S. Grant U.S. representative for
Pennsylvania's 9th district
(1847–1851)
36 Joseph P. Bradley 10th (new seat) March 21, 1870
(46–9)
March 23, 1870

January 22, 1892
(Died)
Lawyer,
Private practice
37 Ward Hunt 1st Nelson December 11, 1872
(Acclamation)
January 9, 1873

January 27, 1882
(Retired)
Chief Judge of the
New York Court of Appeals
(1868–1872)
38 John Marshall Harlan 8th Davis December 10, 1877
(Acclamation)
November 29, 1877

October 14, 1911
(Died)
Rutherford B. Hayes 14th
attorney general of Kentucky
(1863–1867)
39 William Burnham Woods 3rd Strong December 21, 1880
(39–8)
January 5, 1881

May 14, 1887
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Fifth Circuit

(1869–1880)
40 Stanley Matthews 6th Swayne May 12, 1881
(24–23)
May 17, 1881

March 22, 1889
(Died)
James A. Garfield United States senator
from Ohio
(1877–1879)
41 Horace Gray 2nd Clifford December 20, 1881
(51–5)
January 9, 1882

September 15, 1902
(Died)
Chester A. Arthur Chief Justice of the
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
(1873–1881)
42 Samuel Blatchford 1st Hunt March 22, 1882
(Acclamation)
April 3, 1882

July 7, 1893
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Second Circuit

(1878–1882)
43 Lucius Quintus
Cincinnatus Lamar II
3rd Woods January 16, 1888
(32–28)
January 18, 1888

January 23, 1893
(Died)
Grover Cleveland 16th
United States secretary of the interior
(1885–1888)
44 David Josiah Brewer 6th Matthews December 18, 1889
(53–11)
January 6, 1890

March 28, 1910
(Died)
Benjamin Harrison Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1884–1889)
45 Henry Billings Brown 4th Miller December 29, 1890
(Acclamation)
January 5, 1891

May 28, 1906
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Michigan

(1875–1890)
46 George Shiras Jr. 10th Bradley July 26, 1892
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1892

February 23, 1903
(Retired)
Lawyer,
Private practice
47 Howell Edmunds Jackson 3rd L. Lamar February 18, 1893
(Acclamation)
March 4, 1893

August 8, 1895
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1891–1893)
48 Edward Douglass White 1st Blatchford February 19, 1894
(Acclamation)
March 12, 1894

December 18, 1910
(Continued as chief justice)
Grover Cleveland United States senator
from Louisiana
(1891–1894)
49 Rufus W. Peckham 3rd H. Jackson December 9, 1895
(Acclamation)
January 6, 1896

October 24, 1909
(Died)
Associate Judge of the
New York Court of Appeals
50 Joseph McKenna 9th Field January 21, 1898
(Acclamation)
January 26, 1898

January 5, 1925
(Retired)
William McKinley 42nd
United States attorney general
(1897–1898)
51 Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. 2nd Gray December 4, 1902
(Acclamation)
December 8, 1902

January 12, 1932
(Retired)
Theodore Roosevelt Chief Justice of the
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
(1899–1902)
52 William R. Day 10th Shiras February 23, 1903
(Acclamation)
March 2, 1903

November 13, 1922
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1899–1903)
53 William Henry Moody 4th Brown December 12, 1906
(Acclamation)
December 17, 1906

November 20, 1910
(Retired)
45th
United States attorney general
(1904–1906)
54 Horace Harmon Lurton 3rd Peckham December 20, 1909
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1910

July 12, 1914
(Died)
William Howard Taft Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1893–1909)
55 Charles Evans Hughes 6th Brewer May 2, 1910
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1910

June 10, 1916
(Resigned)
36th
governor of New York
(1907–1910)
56 Willis Van Devanter 1st E. White December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1911

June 2, 1937
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1903–1910)
57 Joseph Rucker Lamar 4th Moody December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1911

January 2, 1916
(Died)
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court of Georgia
(1901–1905)
58 Mahlon Pitney 8th J. Harlan I March 13, 1912
(50–26)
March 18, 1912

December 31, 1922
(Resigned)
U.S. representative for
New Jersey's 4th district
(1895–1899)
59 James Clark McReynolds 3rd Lurton August 29, 1914
(44–6)
October 12, 1914

January 31, 1941
(Retired)
Woodrow Wilson 48th
United States attorney general
(1913–1914)
60 Louis Brandeis 4th J. Lamar June 1, 1916
(47–22)
June 5, 1916

February 13, 1939
(Retired)
Lawyer,
Private practice:
Brandeis Dunbar & Nutter
61 John Hessin Clarke 6th Hughes July 24, 1916
(Acclamation)
October 9, 1916

September 5, 1922
(Resigned)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Northern District of Ohio

(1914–1916)
62 George Sutherland Clarke September 5, 1922
(Acclamation)
October 2, 1922

January 17, 1938
(Retired)
Warren G. Harding United States senator
from Utah
(1905–1917)
63 Pierce Butler 10th Day December 21, 1922
(61–8)
January 2, 1923

November 16, 1939
(Died)
President of the
Minnesota State Bar Association
64 Edward Terry Sanford 8th Pitney January 29, 1923
(Acclamation)
February 19, 1923

March 8, 1930
(Died)
Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Middle District of Tennessee

(1908–1923)
65 Harlan F. Stone 9th McKenna February 5, 1925
(71–6)
March 2, 1925

July 3, 1941
(Continued as chief justice)
Calvin Coolidge 52nd
United States attorney general
(1924–1925)
66 Owen Roberts 8th Sanford May 20, 1930
(Acclamation)
June 2, 1930

July 31, 1945
(Resigned)
Herbert Hoover Assistant District Attorney for Philadelphia
67 Benjamin N. Cardozo 2nd Holmes February 24, 1932
(Acclamation)
March 14, 1932

July 9, 1938
(Died)
Chief Judge of the
New York Court of Appeals
(1927–1932)
68 Hugo Black 1st Van Devanter August 17, 1937
(63–16)
August 19, 1937

September 17, 1971
(Retired)
Franklin D. Roosevelt United States senator
from Alabama
(1927–1937)
69 Stanley Forman Reed 6th Sutherland January 25, 1938
(Acclamation)
January 31, 1938

February 25, 1957
(Retired)
22nd
United States solicitor general
(1935–1938)
70 Felix Frankfurter 2nd Cardozo January 17, 1939
(Acclamation)
January 30, 1939

August 28, 1962
(Retired)
Chairman of Harvard Law School
71 William O. Douglas 4th Brandeis April 4, 1939
(62–4)
April 17, 1939

November 12, 1975
(Retired)
3rd
chairman of the
Securities and Exchange Commission
(1937–1939)
72 Frank Murphy 10th Butler January 16, 1940
(Acclamation)
February 5, 1940

July 19, 1949
(Died)
56th
United States attorney general
(1939–1940)
73 James F. Byrnes 3rd McReynolds June 12, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 8, 1941

October 3, 1942
(Resigned)
United States senator
from South Carolina
(1931–1941)
74 Robert H. Jackson 9th Stone July 7, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 11, 1941

October 9, 1954
(Died)
57th
United States attorney general
(1940–1941)
75 Wiley Blount Rutledge 3rd Byrnes February 8, 1943
(Acclamation)
February 15, 1943

September 10, 1949
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1939–1943)
76 Harold Hitz Burton 8th Roberts September 19, 1945
(Acclamation)
October 1, 1945

October 13, 1958
(Retired)
Harry S. Truman United States senator
from Ohio
(1941–1945)
77 Tom C. Clark 10th Murphy August 18, 1949
(73–8)
August 24, 1949

June 12, 1967
(Retired)
59th
United States attorney general
(1945–1949)
78 Sherman Minton 3rd W. Rutledge October 12, 1949
(48–16)
October 12, 1949

October 15, 1956
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Seventh Circuit

(1941–1949)
79 John Marshall Harlan 9th R. Jackson March 16, 1955
(71–11)
March 28, 1955

September 23, 1971
(Retired)
Dwight D. Eisenhower Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Second Circuit

(1954–1955)
80 William J. Brennan Jr. 3rd Minton March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
October 15, 1956

July 20, 1990
(Retired)
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court of New Jersey
(1951–1956)
81 Charles Evans Whittaker 6th Reed March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
March 25, 1957

March 31, 1962
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1956–1957)
82 Potter Stewart 8th Burton May 5, 1959
(70–17)
October 14, 1958

July 3, 1981
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1954–1958)
83 Byron White 6th Whittaker April 11, 1962
(Acclamation)
April 16, 1962

June 28, 1993
(Retired)
John F. Kennedy 4th
United States deputy attorney general
(1961–1962)
84 Arthur Goldberg 2nd Frankfurter September 25, 1962
(Acclamation)
October 1, 1962

July 26, 1965
(Resigned)
9th
United States secretary of labor
(1961–1962)
85 Abe Fortas Goldberg August 11, 1965
(Acclamation)
October 4, 1965

May 14, 1969
(Resigned)
Lyndon B. Johnson United States under secretary of the interior
86 Thurgood Marshall 10th Clark August 30, 1967
(69–11)
October 2, 1967

October 1, 1991
(Retired)
32nd
solicitor general of the United States
(1965–1967)
87 Harry Blackmun 2nd Fortas May 12, 1970
(94–0)
June 9, 1970

August 3, 1994
(Retired)
Richard Nixon Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1959–1970)
88 Lewis F. Powell Jr. 1st Black December 6, 1971
(89–1)
January 7, 1972

June 26, 1987
(Retired)
President of the
American Bar Association
(1964–1965)
89 William Rehnquist 9th J. Harlan II December 10, 1971
(68–26)
January 7, 1972

September 26, 1986
(Continued as chief justice)
United States assistant attorney general
for the Office of Legal Counsel
(1969–1971)
90 John Paul Stevens 4th Douglas December 17, 1975
(98–0)
December 19, 1975

June 29, 2010
(Retired)
Gerald Ford Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Seventh Circuit

(1970–1975)
91 Sandra Day O'Connor 8th Stewart September 21, 1981
(99–0)
September 25, 1981

January 31, 2006
(Retired)
Ronald Reagan Judge of the
Arizona Court of Appeals
(1979–1981)
92 Antonin Scalia 9th Rehnquist September 17, 1986
(98–0)
September 26, 1986

February 13, 2016
(Died)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1982–1986)
93 Anthony Kennedy 1st Powell February 3, 1988
(97–0)
February 18, 1988

July 31, 2018
(Retired)
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Ninth Circuit

(1975–1988)
94 David Souter 3rd Brennan October 2, 1990
(90–9)
October 9, 1990

June 29, 2009
(Retired)
George H. W. Bush Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the First Circuit

(1990)
95 Clarence Thomas 10th Marshall October 15, 1991
(52–48)
October 23, 1991

Incumbent
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1990–1991)
96 Ruth Bader Ginsburg 6th B. White August 3, 1993
(96–3)
August 10, 1993

September 18, 2020
(Died)
Bill Clinton Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1980–1993)
97 Stephen Breyer 2nd Blackmun July 29, 1994
(87–9)
August 3, 1994

June 30, 2022
(Retired)
Chief Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the First Circuit

(1990–1994)
98 Samuel Alito 8th O'Connor January 31, 2006
(58–42)
January 31, 2006

Incumbent
George W. Bush Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Third Circuit

(1990–2006)
99 Sonia Sotomayor 3rd Souter August 6, 2009
(68–31)
August 8, 2009

Incumbent
Barack Obama Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Second Circuit

(1998–2009)
100 Elena Kagan 4th Stevens August 5, 2010
(63–37)
August 7, 2010

Incumbent
45th
solicitor general of the United States
(2009–2010)
101 Neil Gorsuch 9th Scalia April 7, 2017
(54–45)
April 10, 2017

Incumbent
Donald Trump Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Tenth Circuit

(2006–2017)
102 Brett Kavanaugh 1st Kennedy October 6, 2018
(50–48)
October 6, 2018

Incumbent
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(2006–2018)
103 Amy Coney Barrett 6th Ginsburg October 26, 2020
(52–48)
October 27, 2020

Incumbent
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Seventh Circuit

(2017–2020)
104 Ketanji Brown Jackson 2nd Breyer April 7, 2022
(53–47)
June 30, 2022

Incumbent
Joe Biden Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(2021–2022)

Notes

  1. ^ The start date given here for each associate justice is the day they took the oath of office, and the end date is the day of the justice's death, resignation, or retirement.
  2. ^ Listed here (unless otherwise noted) is the position—either with a U.S. state or the federal government, or with a private corporation—held by the individual immediately prior to becoming an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court.
  3. ^ Later served as chief justice, June 30, 1795 – December 28, 1795.
  4. ^ Was confirmed as chief justice on January 26, 1796, but declined and continued to serve as an associate justice.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Recess appointment. Note: the date on which the justice took the judicial oath is here used as the date of the beginning of their service, not the date of the recess appointment.
  6. ^ Was impeached, but not convicted, and remained in office.
  7. ^ Served as chief justice, December 19, 1910 – May 19, 1921.
  8. ^ Later served as chief justice, February 24, 1930 – June 30, 1941.
  9. ^ Served as chief justice, July 3, 1941 – April 22, 1946.
  10. ^ Served as chief justice, September 26, 1986 – September 3, 2005.

References

  1. ^ Hall, Kermit L. (2005). "Judiciary Act of 1869". In Hall, Kermit L.; Ely, James W.; Grossman, Joel B. (eds.). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Oxford University Press. p. 548. ISBN 9780195176612. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
  2. ^ McMillion, Barry J.; Rutkus, Denis Steven (July 6, 2018). "Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 to 2017: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 9, 2019. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  3. ^ "Judicial Compensation". United States Courts. Retrieved April 26, 2023.
  4. ^ "Justice Clarence Thomas". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 15, 2020. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  5. ^ "Justice Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  6. ^ "Justice Sonia Sotomayor". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  7. ^ "Justice Elena Kagan". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 24, 2020. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  8. ^ "Justice Neil M. Gorsuch". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on November 22, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
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Further reading

External links